Journal of Civil Engineering Frontiers http://jocivilef.org/index.php/jocef <p>The Journal of Civil Engineering Frontiers (JoCEF) with <span style="color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.87); font-family: 'Noto Serif', -apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, 'Segoe UI', Roboto, Oxygen-Sans, Ubuntu, Cantarell, 'Helvetica Neue', sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">ISSN: XXXX XXXX </span>is a peer-reviewed journal and seeks to provide an advanced forum on all aspects of Civil Engineering Research, specifically addressing issues that relate to Civil and Environmental Engineering, Geotechnical Engineering, Survey, and Geospatial Engineering, Geotechnical Engineering, Water Resources Engineering, Earthquake Engineering, Petroleum Engineering, Construction Engineering, Solid Mechanics, Structural Engineering, Transportation Engineering, Engineering Management </p> en-US <h4>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</h4> <ul> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY-NC-SA 4.0</a>] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work, with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online.</li> </ul> Karwan.Jacksi@ieee.org (Asst. Prof. Dr. Karwan Jacksi) karwan.jacksi@ieee.org (Asst. Prof. Dr. Karwan Jacksi) Wed, 30 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.2.1.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 The Investigation of The Different Types of the Ground Rebar Spacers with Proposing New Design Rebar Space Mixed of Concrete Palstic http://jocivilef.org/index.php/jocef/article/view/4 <p><strong>The reinforcing spacers are commonly prepared from cementitious material, plastic or metals. These spacers are prepared to provide the reinforcing steel with ensuring that the requested concrete cover thickness is attained to guard surrounded steel from corrosion. Also, they pretend a vital role in the concrete structure performance. The toughness of reinforced concrete buildings remains extremely reliant on the features of the protection of concrete to be strong with thickness. A disappointment in finding cover thickness is considered the main impact on early deterioration within the steel, whichever in chance is a chief weaken method in reinforced concrete constructions. The specified study offerings a review study on the investigation of the advantages and disadvantages of six factors in various types concerning the ground rebar spacers studies. As a result, different types of ground rebar spacers have been compared and the new rebar spacer has been designed mixed of concrete_ plastic material</strong></p> Sevar Neamat, Mahmood Shamsborhan Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 http://jocivilef.org/index.php/jocef/article/view/4 Wed, 22 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Combining GIS and Analytical Hierarchy Process for Landfill Siting, Study Area: Paveh County in Iran http://jocivilef.org/index.php/jocef/article/view/5 <p>Landll siting is a complex and challenging operation. It is one of the fundamental problems in waste management, where it is necessary to consider different conditions when it comes to selecting an appropriate site for landll in each area. The factors or criteria we used in this article are environmental, economic, and social criteria. In this research, the Geographic Information System (GIS) and the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) were utilized to select the most suitable sites for landll in Paveh, which the current landfill in this county does not follow environmental laws. In the process of zoning sites for landll in Paveh, twelve various criteria were mapped and join for cover analyses within GIS application to construct the last suitability index map for the site. The weightings of criteria were done with the help of AHP, and the weightings of the criteria were identified based on various factors. For this purpose, we used experts opinions, governmental regulations, and previous literature. Paveh is located in Kermanshah in the western part of Iran with 736 km^2area. The results show that almost 93% of the study areas is improper for landfill sitting.</p> Mahya Rostampoor, Mitra Zamani, Amir Vaighan Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 http://jocivilef.org/index.php/jocef/article/view/5 Sat, 25 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Human Resource Management with Strategic Development http://jocivilef.org/index.php/jocef/article/view/7 <p><strong>The development in globalization helped a lot of countries to consider China as a noticeably improved state in its technical, substructure, industrial, and producing possessions with facilities. Despite these signs of progress, there is an area of investigation for undertaking a rough spreading of revenue that has produced dogmatic and socio-economic difficulties in the republic. The aim of research to determine the character of managing the human resources aptitude in carrying growth and creativity competencies in standing the market. This study concentrated on the qualitative analysis of researches concentrated on planned and humanoid reserve management. An investigation assessment discovered that these human-related organizations are a vital obligation in shaping the business competences. Though, as the business retains increasing, the performance and progress of workers want to save up the covering up of the international marketplace. Open-handed some direction, training, and exercise consider as one of the good savings in developed the competencies. Client faithfulness is a decisive issue of the presentation of the corporation</strong>.</p> Sevar Neamat Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 http://jocivilef.org/index.php/jocef/article/view/7 Sat, 08 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessing the quality of the environment in Duhok province, Kurdistan Region of Iraq http://jocivilef.org/index.php/jocef/article/view/9 <p><strong>Discovering the quality of the environment is essential because it directly affects health status and plays a significant role in the quality of life and public health. This research aimed to evaluate the environmental quality affecting by human-made sources in Duhok province using GIS. Based on the human-made sources affecting the quality of the environment, including population density, solid waste generation, and industrial density, the state of the environment was evaluated in the study area. The overall result indicated that about 85% of the study area has a moderate to high-quality state, while low and very low contributed to 13% and 1%, respectively. The integrated analysis of the environmental quality in Duhok province would increase the protection of the ecological environment and help the regional sustainable development and improvement of the built environment</strong><strong>. </strong></p> Amina Muhammed, Hazhir Karimi, Berivan Gharab, Sevar Neamat, Karamreza Mirzaei Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 http://jocivilef.org/index.php/jocef/article/view/9 Sun, 06 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 University Students' Attitudes Towards Animal Welfare in Duhok Zoo http://jocivilef.org/index.php/jocef/article/view/10 <p><strong>Here in Kurdistan Region of Iraq, particularly in Duhok zoo, animal welfare is mostly neglected. Animals are not treated normally. As far as the author is aware, there is no study undertaken to understand the students or public attitudes toward animals in Duhok zoo. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes of the students of the University of Zakho, Faculty of Sciences, Departments of Environmental Sciences, and Biology about animal welfare concerns of Duhok Zoo. The study was undertaken at University of Zakho, Faculty of Sciences. Two hundred questionnaires were divided into the students of both Environmental Sciences and Biology Departments. The questionnaire comprised of 15 questions with 3 sections, which were: first, students identification including name, age, and sex. Second, information on animal welfare, and the last one was recording their opinions on the questionnaire. With each question, students had chosen one of the following opinions: Completely Disagree, Somewhat Disagree, Neither Disagree nor Agree, Somewhat Agree, and Completely Agree. All participants agreed to answer the questionnaire voluntarily. Results revealed that most of the students were of opinion that Duhok zoo should be improved; in addition, most of them were entirely or somewhat disagreed that Duhok zoo is acceptable in general. They had an agreement with the idea that there should be educational programs inside the zoo, and in addition, the zoo does not cover environmental needs for the most, if not all, captive animals. Students were also agreed that there should be conservation programs to conserve captive animals, especially endangered and rare species. However, almost all of the students did not want the zoo to be closed entirely. According to the findings of the students' attitudes obtained, it can be concluded that the zoological park of Duhok city has many shortages regarding the welfare of animals in dealing with their captive animals.</strong></p> Ronak A. Meshabaz, Nizar J. Hussein, Assel. A. I. Al-nakshabandi, Hawar M. Zebari Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 http://jocivilef.org/index.php/jocef/article/view/10 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000