Journal of Civil Engineering Frontiers http://jocivilef.org/index.php/jocef <p>The Journal of Civil Engineering Frontiers (JoCEF) with <span style="color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.87); font-family: 'Noto Serif', -apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, 'Segoe UI', Roboto, Oxygen-Sans, Ubuntu, Cantarell, 'Helvetica Neue', sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">ISSN: <strong>2709-6904 </strong></span>is a peer-reviewed journal and published by <a href="https://ipacademia.org/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Interdisciplinary Publishing Academia</a> (IP Academia). It seeks to provide an advanced forum on all aspects of Civil Engineering Research, specifically addressing issues that relate to Civil and Environmental Engineering, Geotechnical Engineering, Survey, and Geospatial Engineering, Geotechnical Engineering, Water Resources Engineering, Earthquake Engineering, Petroleum Engineering, Construction Engineering, Solid Mechanics, Structural Engineering, Transportation Engineering, Engineering Management </p> en-US <h4>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</h4> <ul> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY-NC-SA 4.0</a>] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work, with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online.</li> </ul> Karwan.Jacksi@ieee.org (Asst. Prof. Dr. Karwan Jacksi) karwan.jacksi@ieee.org (Asst. Prof. Dr. Karwan Jacksi) Thu, 01 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.2.1.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Determination of the Neck Size between Powders during Sintering Process Using Finite Element Methods http://jocivilef.org/index.php/jocef/article/view/11 <p class="p1"><strong>Today, sintering considers one of the significant processes that can be used in powder technology to produce a new solid product from powders using thermal energy. Many parameters can be successfully controlled by this process such as temperature, Particle size, process time, structure geometry, powder density, and powder composition. Study and analysis of the behavior of powder during the sintering process was carried out using finite element methods. The simulation provides two styles of discrete method and Qusi-static method. This research contributes to two types of processes in order to simulate the copper powder during the sintering process and to determine the variation by using contact and shrinkage ratios of powder behaviors. Finally, a comparison between the two styles of discrete element method explains how the selected parameters were impacted on the sintering process.</strong></p> Anas Obeed Balod, Ziad Al Sarraf, Anas Abid Mattie Copyright (c) 2020 Ziad Al Sarraf https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 http://jocivilef.org/index.php/jocef/article/view/11 Sat, 12 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Performance Investigation of refrigerant R-407C as a Replacement to refrigerant R22 in Window Air Conditioner Unit http://jocivilef.org/index.php/jocef/article/view/18 <p><strong>The present work deal with the experimental study to retrofit the refrigerant R407c with the refrigerant R22 in the air conditioning unit at an ambient temperature range between 30-45°C. The main component of the experimental rig includes a window air conditioner with a refrigeration capacity of 2 Ton refrigeration that used refrigerant R22 as a working fluid in the experimental work. The refrigerant R22 is replaced with refrigerant R407C due to similar operation properties for the two refrigerants. The experimental results displayed the refrigeration effect and coefficient of performance COP of the R22 system are high as with those of the R407C system. The falls in the evaporator and condenser for the R407C system is lower than that of the R22 system. The temperature of discharge in the compressor for the system of refrigerant R22 is greater than that of the R407C system. Moreover, condensation temperature along the tube of the condenser is decreased with the increase of the distance for both refrigerants. The refrigerant R407C may be selected as a good alternate for R22 with an agreement difference in the two refrigerants’ performance. The system did not require replacement for any part of the AC unit.</strong></p> Ibrahim F. Abdulqadir, Badran M. Salim, Omar Shamdeen Copyright (c) 2020 Ibrahim F. Abdulqadir, Badran M. Salim, Omar Shamdeen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 http://jocivilef.org/index.php/jocef/article/view/18 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000