Vol. 3 No. 02 (2022)

Parametric Investigations into the Analysis of Piled Raft for Multi-Storeyed Building

Hemant Chore
Dr B R Ambedkar National Institute of Technology Jalandhar
Junaid Siddiqui
Anjuman-E-Islam Kalsekar Technical Campus, New Panvel -410206
Ashish Kishore
Dr B R Ambedkar National Institute of Technology Jalandhar-144027 (Punjab) INDIA

Published 2023-02-06


  • Piled raft,
  • Raft,
  • Pile,
  • Pile length,
  • Pile diameter

How to Cite

H. Chore, J. Siddiqui, and A. Kishore, “Parametric Investigations into the Analysis of Piled Raft for Multi-Storeyed Building ”, JoCEF, vol. 3, no. 02, pp. 67-73, Feb. 2023.


This paper presents the analysis of the piled raft for a 50-story building using an approximate method to estimate the settlement and load distribution of the foundation. The pile and soils are considered to be interacting springs, and the raft is represented as a thin plate. The model takes into account both the resistance of the piles and the resistance of the raft foundation. It is calculated how the raft, soil, and pile interact. The suggested technique enables the use of the finite element based program ETABS to quickly address the issues of small, non-uniformly arranged rafts and big, non-uniformly ordered rafts. The effect of different pile length and diameter is evaluated on the behaviour of piled raft. With an increase in pile lengths, the moments in the raft are found to increase while the settlement of the pile decreases. Further, increases in pile diameter are found to increase the moments in the raft while decreasing the settlement of the raft. The parameters such as pile diameter and pile length have a considerable effect on the response of a foundation considered in the present study


Metrics Loading ...


  1. Butterfield, R. and Banerjee, P. K. (1971), “The problem of pile group - pile cap interaction”, Geotechnique, 21(2), 135-142.
  2. Ottaviani, M. (1975), “Three-dimensional finite element analysis of vertically loaded pile groups”, Geotechnique, 25 (2), 159-174.
  3. Chow, Y. K. (1987), “Axial and lateral response of pile groups embedded in non-homogeneous soil”, Int. Jl. Num. Analyt. Meth. Geomech., (11) 6, 621-638.
  4. Liu, W, and Novak, M. (1991), “Soil-pile-cap static interaction analysis by finite and infinite elements”, Canadian Geotech. Jl., 28, 771-783.
  5. Chen, K. S., Karasudhi, P. and Lee, S. L. (1974), “Force at a point in the interior of layered elastic half-space”, Int. Jl. Solids Struct., 10(11), 1179-1199.
  6. Randolph, M. F. (1983), “Design of piled raft foundations”, Proc. Int. Symposium on Recent Developments in Laboratory and Field Tests and Analysis of Geotechnical Problems, Bangkok, 525—537.
  7. Clancy, P. and Randolph, M. F. (1993), “An approximate analysis procedure for piled raft foundations”, Int. Jl. Num. and Analyt. Meth. in Geomech., 17(12), 849–869.
  8. Poulos H.G. (1994), “An approximate numerical analysis of piled raft interaction” Int. Jl. Num. and Analyt. Meth. in Geomech., 18 (2), 73–92.
  9. Katzenbach, R. and Reul, 0. (1997), “Design and performance of piled rafts”, Proc. XIV” Int. Conf. Soil Mech. and Foundation Engg., 97, Hamburg, 4, 2253-2256.
  10. Prakoso, W. A. and Kulhawy, F. H. (2001), “Contribution to piled raft foundation design”, Jl. Geotech. and Geoenv. Engg., ASCE, 127(1), 17-24.
  11. Kitiyodom, P. and Matsumoto, T. (2003), “A simplified analysis method for piled raft foundations in non-homogeneous Soils”, Int. Jl. Num. Analyt. Meth. in Geomech., 27(2), 88-109.
  12. Hooper, J. A. (1973), “Observations on the behaviour of a piled-raft foundation on London Clay”, Proc. Int, Jl. Civ. Eng., 55 (2), 855-877.
  13. Madhav, M.R. and Karmarkar, R.S. (1982), “Elasto-plastic settlement of rigid footings”, Journal Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE, 108 (GT-3), 483-488.
  14. Kakurai, M., Yamashita, K. and Tomono, M. (1987), “Settlement behaviour of piled raft foundation on soft ground”, Proc. 8th Asian Regional Conf. Soil Mech. and Foundation Engg., Kyoto, Japan, 1, 373-376.
  15. Chow, Y. K. and Teh, C. I. (1991), “Pile-cap-pile-group interaction in non- homogeneous soil”, Jl. Geotech. Engg., ASCE,, 117 (11), 1655-1667.
  16. Wiesner, T. J. (1991). “Various applications of piled raft analysis”, Proc. Int. Conf. on Comp. Meth. and Advances in Geomech., (Ed.:Beer, Booker and Carter), Balkema, Rotterdam, 1035-1039.
  17. Gandhi, S.R. and Maharaj, D.K. (1996), “Analysis of piled raft foundation”, Proc. Sixth Int. Conf. on Piling and Deep Foundations, Mumbai, India, 1.11, 1-7.
  18. Smith I. M. and A. Wang (1998), “Analysis of piled rafts”, Int. Jl. Num. and Analyt. Meth. Geomech., 22 (10), 777–790.
  19. Franke, E., El-Mossallamy, Y. and Wittmann, P. (2000), “Calculation methods for raft foundation in Germany”, Design Applications of Raft Foundation, Thomas Telford, 283-322.
  20. Katzenbach, R., Arslan, U. and Moormann, C. (2000), “Piled raft foundation projects in Germany”, Design Applications of Raft Foundation, Thomas Telford, 323-391.
  21. Reul, O. and Randolph, M. F. (2003), “Piled rafts in over consolidated clay: Comparison of in- situ measurements and numerical analyses”, Geotechnique, 53(3), 301-315.
  22. Maharaj, D. K. and Gandhi, S. R. (2004), “Non-linear Finite Element Analysis of Piled Raft Foundations”, Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng., Geotech. Engg., 157, 107-113.
  23. Poulos, H.G., Badelow, F., Small, J.C., Moyes, P. (2006), “Economic foundation design for tall buildings”. Proc. 10th Int. Conf. on Piling and Deep Foundations, Amsterdam, 200-209.
  24. Thoiba Singh, N. and Baleshwar Singh (2008), “Interaction analysis for piled rafts in cohesive soils” The 12th Int. Conf. Int. Association for Comp. Meth. and Advances in Geomechanics (IACMAG), Goa, India.
  25. Noh, E. Y., Huang, M., Surarak, C., Adamec, R. and Balasurbamaniam, A. S. (2008), "Finite element modeling for piled-raft in sand", Proc. of Eleventh East Asia-Pacific Conf. Structural, Engineering and Construction (EASEC-11), Taipei, Taiwan.
  26. Cheng, Z. (2011), “Prediction and measurement of settlement of a piled raft foundation over thick soft ground”, E- Jl. Geot. Engg. (EJGE), 16(A), 125-136.
  27. Xie X., Shou M. and Huang J. (2012), “Application Study of Long-short-piled Raft Foundation”, Applied Mechanics and Materials, 70, 242-245.
  28. Sawant,V. A., Ladhane, K. and Pawar, S. (2012), “Parametric study of piled raft for three load-patterns”, Coupled System Mech.: An Int. Jl., 1(2), 115-131.
  29. Chore, H.S. and Siddiqui, M.J. (2013), “Analysis of piled raft for three load patterns”, Coupled Systems Mech, 2 (3), 289-302.
  30. Brown, P. T. and Wiesner, T. J. (1975), “The behaviour of uniformly loaded piled strip footings”, Soils and Foundations, 15 (4), 13-21.
  31. Kuwabara, F. (1989), “An elastic analysis for piled raft foundations in a homogeneous soil”, Soils and Foundations, 29(1), 82-92.
  32. Baziar, M. H., Ghorbani, A., Katzenbach, R. (2009), “Small-scale model test and three dimensional analysis of piled -raft foundation on medium-dense sand”, Int. Jl. Civ. Eng., 7 (3), 170-175.
  33. Sales, M.M., Small, J. C. and Poulos, H.G. (2010), “Compensated piled rafts in clayey soils: behaviour, measurements, and predictions”, Canadian Geotech. Jl., 47, 327-345.
  34. Basile, F. (2015), “Non-linear analysis of vertically loaded piled rafts”, Computers and Geotechnics, 63, 73-82.
  35. Hain, S. J. and Lee, I. K. (1978), “The Analysis of flexible raft-pile systems”, Geotechnique, 28 (1), 65-83.
  36. Sinha, J. (1997), “Piled raft foundations subjected to swelling and shrinking soils”, Ph.D. Thesis (Unpublished), University of Sydney, Australia.
  37. Mendonca, A. V. and De Paiva, J. B. (2003), “A Boundary element method for the static analysis of raft foundations on piles”, Engg Analysis with Boundary Elements, 24, 237-247.
  38. Small, J. C. and Booker, J. R. (1984), “Finite layer analysis of layered elastic materials using flexibility approach, Part I. — Strip Loadings”, Int. Jl. Num. Meth. Eng., 20, 1025-1037.
  39. Small, J. C. and Booker, J. R. (1986), “Finite layer analysis of layered elastic materials using flexibility approach, Part II. — Circular and Rectangular Loadings”, Int. Jl. Num. Meth. Eng., 23, 959-978.
  40. Tan, Y.C., Chow, C.M. and Gue, S.S. (2005), “Piled raft with different pile length for medium rise buildings ob very soft clay”, Proceedings 16th Int. Conf. Soil Mech. And Geot. Engg. (ICSMGE), Osaka, Japan, September 12-16.
  41. Chow, Y.K., Poulos, H.G. and Small, J.C. (2011), “Piled Raft Foundations for Tall Buildings”, Geot. Engg. Jl. (South East Asian Geotechnical Society), 42(2).
  42. Shen, W. Y., Chow, Y. K. and Yong, K. Y. (1999), “Variational solution for vertically loaded pile groups in an elastic half-space”, Geotechnique, 49 (2),199-213.
  43. Shen, W. Y. and Teh, C. I. (2002), “Analysis of laterally loaded pile groups using a variational approach”, Geotechnique, 52 (3), 201-208.
  44. Liang, F. Y. and Chen, L. Z. (2004), “A modified variation approach for the analysis of piled raft Foundation”, Mechanics Research Comm., 31, 593-604.
  45. Wulandari, P.S. and Tjandra, D. (2015), “Analysis of piled raft foundation on soft soil using PLAXIS 2D”, Procedia Engineering, 125, 363-367.
  46. Ko, J., Cho, J. and Jeong, S. (2017), “ Nonlinear 3D interactive analysis of superstructure and piled raft foundation”, Engineering Structures, 143, 204-218.
  47. Nasrollahi, S.M. and Hosseininia, S. (2019), “A simplified solution for piled-raft foundation analysis by using the two-phase approach”, C. R. Mecanique, 347, 716-733.
  48. Deb, P. and Pal, S. K. (2019), “Numerical analysis of piled raft foundation under combined vertical and lateral loading”, Ocean Engineering, 190, 106431.
  49. Chanda, D., Saha, R. and Haldar, S. (2020), “Behaviour of piled raft foundation in sand subjected to combined V-M-H loading”, Ocean Engineering, 216, 107596.
  50. Kumar, U. and Vasanwala, S. (2021), “A numerical analysis on the effect of pile head connections on piled raft foundation subjected to vertical and static horizontal load”, Materials Today: Proceedings, 42, 3083-3088.
  51. Modak, R. and Singh, B. (2022), “A parametric study of large piled raft foundations on clay soil”, Ocean Engineering, 262, 112251.
  52. Deb, P., Debnath, B., Reang, R. B. and Pal, S.K. (2022), “ Structural analysis of piled raft foundation in soft soil: An experimental simulation and parametric study with numerical method”, Ocean Engineering, 261, 112139.