Vol. 5 No. 01 (2024)

Enhancing California Bearing Ratio through Optimized Compaction Efforts: A Study on Alluvial Soils in North India

Jaskiran Sobti
Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar.
Daljeet Sidhu
Principal Consultant cum Director, Dr. D Project and Resource Management Services (OPC) Pvt. Ltd. Ludhiana.

Published 2024-02-24


  • California Bearing Ratio,
  • Compactive Effort,
  • Modified Proctor Test Flexible Pavement,
  • Perpetual Pavement

How to Cite

J. Sobti and D. Sidhu, “Enhancing California Bearing Ratio through Optimized Compaction Efforts: A Study on Alluvial Soils in North India”, JoCEF, vol. 5, no. 01, pp. 1-6, Feb. 2024.


The quantity of soil required for embankment construction is enormous. Often the soil is brought to the site in dumpers in multiple rounds. This to and from movement of the wagons leads to the deterioration of the existing flexible pavement. In the absence of good earth nearby, using existing soils to act as a subgrade material upon meeting the desired strength and stability characteristics is the need of the hour. The California Bearing Ratio (CBR) is an indicator of soil's strength, which further depends on the degree of compaction of soil. In this study, an effort has been made to find the required compaction efforts to achieve maximum CBR value finding its applicability for both conventional flexible and perpetual pavements. Three different types of alluvial soils in North India were tested for CBR with varying compaction efforts using the modified Proctor test. The effect of mixing different soils was also considered to find the effectiveness of mechanically mixing soils on the required compaction efforts. It was observed that there is a constant upsurge in the CBR of soils upon an increase in the percentage compactive effort up to a certain limit. In the case of clayey soils, the rate of increase is less as compared to the well-graded sands. This study also highlights the effect of mechanical mixing of such soils with sandy soils in desired proportions giving rise to amplified values of CBR ratio of the soil blend. The regression analysis was also conducted to examine a correlation between the compactive effort and CBR values and it was best represented by exponential function for different types of soils.


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